Modern aircraft GPS antennas can eliminate multiple GPS interference signals at the same time – this increases the natural anti-jamming capability of properly locked and locked GPS receivers, which makes it almost impossible to interfere with aircraft unless they are very close to the gps jamming(within a few kilometers)
Germany and the southernmost and easternmost industries in England were targeted significantly more than industries at opposite ends. This was based on capable distances and payload capacities of aerial bombers. In hindsight, should infrastructure managers and military planners consider proactively the geographical locations of assets in relation to known military jamming capabilities and likely end-users? Should GPS reliance be reduced and should more investment into counter-jamming technologies be invested in these locations?
There are, of course, predictable instances where jamming is a possibility. GPSreliant military systems such as UAVs used in conflict zones or near borders of ‘enemy’ states are vulnerable to jamming and spoofing. The interference of civilian systems will likely be affected if within similar proximities of military jammers. North Korea’s jamming in 2012, for example, was traced to the town of Kaesong, just over the border.44 South Korea’s Incheon International Airport,
one of the busiest airports in the world, which serves the greater Seoul metropolitan area, is only 23 miles from the demilitarized zone. The metropolitan area of Seoul is approximately 60 miles from the demilitarized zone. Counter-jamming technologies should therefore be refined to these areas in practice. Governments of countries whose populations are likely to be affected by electronic warfare methods will have sufficiently more pressure weighed on them to take action.
Understanding a states’ strategic calculus of using electronic warfare as means of harassment and intimidation over borders will also inform risk and vulnerability assessments. Russia’s Zapad military drills, involving thousands of soldiers, are carried out as far as 10km from Norway.62 Finland have also experienced jamming from Russian military exercises. This could be tied to Norway’s hosting of NATO Exercise Trident Juncture 2018 and the latter’s involvement. Only diplomatic approaches to persuade Russia to practice its jamming capabilities out of reach of bordering infrastructures is the least aggravating approach.